This website is dedicated to a simple man, a farmer, a loving husband, and father of Thirteen! His name was "Honest John" Hart, he lived in New Jersey, he wrote his name on a piece of sheepskin and Lost everything because of it!. He signed the Declaration of Independence, to find out more, read "What They Lost" below.
Rest in peace, John, we owe you more than we could ever repay.

Socialism explained... Tax information Disarmed America, Armed government Can a jury reject the law?
Are we becoming...
IMPORTANT NEWS JUST IN: A clash today between Federal troops and an organized armed resistance. The Federal troops had been sent in to confiscate an illegal cache of military style arms. Army Colonel Francis Smith told his men "Stand your ground. Don't fire unless fired upon. But if they mean to have a war, let it begin here." Eight resistance members were killed, the rest retreated. As of right now, on the anniversary date of Waco and the Oklahoma City bombing, things are quiet in Lexington-Concord, Massachusetts colony April 19, 1775

Are you a UNITED STATES citizen???

When Cornwallis surrendered on Oct 17, 1781, did he surrender to THE UNITED STATES? No, in fact he surrendered 13 times, to the regiment leaders of each of the states. In 1783, Benjamin Franklin went to France. There, a treaty was signed by King George's representative, which came to be known as The Treaty of Paris. In it, King George relinquished his sovereignty and passed it to The 13 FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES, THE PEOPLE AND THEIR POSTERITY, FOREVER! Independent from England, and Independent from each other. They were then, and are now, Republics, technically NATIONS.

Treaty of Paris


The Articles of Confederation had been written and approved in June of 1776, One month before Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence. It starts out like this:


We were States, but we were united.
What they lost... Signers of the Declaration

"The capital and leading object of the Constitution was to leave with the States all authorities which respected their citizens only, and to transfer to the United States those which respected citizens of foreign or other States, to make us several as to ourselves, but one as to all others"
Thomas Jefferson
Letter to Judge William Johnson
June 12, 1823

Declaration of Independence (Image)
The Bill of Rights (Image)
The Constitution (Image)
The Constitution (Text)

The States deemed that the Articles of Confederation needed refinement, so they convened the First Constitutional Convention. After the Constitution was written, 9 of the 13 States were required to ratify it. Eleven ratified it in 1787, two did not until 1789.

In the Constitution, congress was GRANTED 17 specific powers having to do with the States. Things like lay and collect taxes, coin money, declare war, establish post offices, and regulate commerce. For some of these items, like COLLECT TAXES, there are very specific rules that congress MUST follow.

Get to the point...

There was another power granted to the congress, having to do with the seat of government. The continental congress did not want the federal government located in a particular state, lest that state gain some advantage. So it was written, that a ten square mile area of land be the seat of government, which is what we call today, the District of Columbia.

Congress was granted EXCLUSIVE LEGISLATIVE AUTHORITY over this area. This meant that, at least for District of Columbia, congress was kind of like a city government. It could pass laws, speed limits or what have you.

But something SINISTER happened..

In 1884 there had been a case dealing with citizenship. The Fourteenth amendment had been ratified, and said, in part: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, AND SUBJECT TO THE JURISDICTION THEREOF, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. The case was called ELK v WILKINS 112 US 94 The court said:

"The persons declared to be citizens are ALL PERSONS BORN OR NATURALIZED IN THE UNITED STATES AND SUBJECT TO THE JURISDICTION THEREOF. The evident meaning of these last words is, not merely subject in some respect or degree to the jurisdiction of the United States, but COMPLETELY SUBJECT.."

Got that?


The nail in the coffin...

In 1901 there was a case that came up in front of the Supreme Court. It is called DOWNES v BIDWELL 182 US 244 It was a case about exports from Puerto Rico, which was a territory, and part of the area congress had exclusive legislative authority over. The Court said:
[Bill of Rights] WERE NOT APPLICABLE to the areas of lands, enclaves, territories, and possessions over which Congress had EXCLUSIVE LEGISLATIVE JURISDICTION"

Note that they are not talking here about Constitutional protections for the land , the Constitution protects PEOPLE!
This was confirmed by another case called HOOVEN v EVATT, 324 US 674


"These are the times that try men's souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in the crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph. What we obtain too cheap, we esteem too lightly; 'tis dearness only that gives everything it's value. Heaven knows how to put a proper price on it's goods; and it would be strange indeed, if so celestial an article as freedom should not be highly rated."

Thomas Paine

So I ask again...

If you say YES! You have

The answer most likely is NO! The fourteenth amendment says ... and subject to the jurisdiction thereof. The jurisdiction of the United States has been held over and over by the courts to be the District of Columbia, territories, enclaves, any area of land the Federal government "OWNS". The Federal government does not "OWN" the States, it was CREATED by the States. If you are a regular AMERICAN, born in one of the 50 states, you are a NATURAL BORN CITIZEN, a Citizen of the State you were born in, a national of the United States, one of "We The People".

3A Am Jur 1420, Aliens and Citizens
"A person is born subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, for purposes of acquiring citizenship at birth, if this birth occurs in a TERRITORY over which the United States is sovereign"

The 50 States

(If we elect people in our State to REPRESENT US!!)

"Since in common usage the term 'person' does not include the SOVEREIGN, statutes employing that term are ordinarily construed to exclude it"
U.S. v Cooper 312 US 600
U.S. v General Motors 2 FRD 528
U.S. v United Mine Workers 330 US 258


Cites and rules about federal jurisdiction

"The founders of our country were brilliant men by any standards. They knew our government would survive and function correctly, and our country prosper, only if there was a continuous supply of an essential ingredient. The president or politicians don't have it. The lawyers and judges don't have it. The journalists and media don't have it. The therapists, psychiatrists and counsellors don't have it.
ONLY the people have it!
djf, Jun 1997

So, where is this all taking us?


As you can guess from the court rulings above, if you are a UNITED STATES citizen , congress can:

If you are a NATURAL BORN AMERICAN things are different!

Fortunately for us, the UNITED STATES is still under Constitutional limitations. The rules for taxes on the AMERICAN CITIZEN are spelled out in the Constitution. And, the Courts have many times ruled on the subject of taxes and what is and is not income. In CONNER v US 303 F SUPP 1187 it said:
"..whatever may constitute income, therefore, must
have the essential feature of gain to the recipient.
This was true at the time of Eisner V Mcomber, it was true under
section 22(a) of the Internal Revenue code of 1938, and it is
likewise true under Section 61(a) of the IRS code of 1954.
If there is not gain, there is not income, CONGRESS

Make no mistake. The above Court citation is from a Federal District Court in Houston, Texas. It plainly and absolutely says that your pay for your work is not INCOME!

More court statements about taxes and income

In another decision, FLORA v US 362 US 145, the Court said:
"Our tax system is based upon VOLUNTARY assessment and payment and
(seizure of property or threat of seizure)

VOLUNTARY?? Read what the court said..

"I am only one, but I am one. I cannot do everything, but I can do something.
What I can do, I should do, and, with the help of God, I WILL DO.
Everett Hale

From what I have come to understand, numerous people have lost cases because they claimed to be "Non-resident aliens" The Facts are these. One can be an "American" which means he is not "subject to" congress, and still not be a "Non-resident alien" But the United States government, which is supposed to be limited by the constitution, doesn't seem to care about that distinction anymore. So much for electing people to represent you. They are more worried about giving away real estate in California to the Chinese, a country which massacred their own people in Tien-Amen Square, still has nuclear weapons aimed at your children and parents, and threatened to drop a nuclear weapon on Los Angeles! (Must be why we made them MFN! They got gonads!)

"Freedom of Speech is the most precious jewel in the Constitution. It is the light that shines from Lady Liberty's torch. The common man, with his discourse, earns the respect of his friends, his family, and his fellow Citizens. And if the Leaders of the Republic ever feel that the common man is too simple, or too uninformed, to offer advice on the workings of government, or that his speech imperils their status, then, without a doubt, or a moments hesitation, it's time to get new leaders"
djf Dec, 1996

Note: Most, but not all of these items have been verified. Use at your own risk.

The BEST essay I've ever read on Constitutional foundations, I cannot say enough about this work, if there is only one link you follow from here, let it be this one.
While you're there, visit Liberty At Work homepage.

"There is a growing sense of outrage in this country. The working people are being crushed. Let the congressmen who won office by promises of benefits and programs, pay for them out of their pocket. Such promises should not, CANNOT,
be yokes of slavery, borne upon the backs of the men and women who labor each day to put bread on their table!"
djf Jan, 1997
"A Democracy cannot exist as a permanent form of government It can only exist until the voters discover that they can vote themselves largesse from the public treasury. From that moment on the majority always vote for the candidates promising the most benefits from the public treasury, with the result that a Democracy always collapses over loose fiscal policy, always followed by a dictatorship. The average age of the worlds greatest civilizations has been two hundred years. These nations have progressed through this sequence: From bondage to spiritual faith; from spiritual faith to great courage; from courage to liberty; from liberty to abundance; from abundance to selfishness; from selfishness to complacency; from complacence to apathy; from apathy to dependence; from dependency back again into bondage."
Alexander Fraser Tyler

The questions asked on this and many similar minded web pages can be summed up as follows: Can we truthfully expect to be able to tell a fourteen year old not to take a gun to school if THE GOVERNMENT ITSELF DOES NOT OBEY THE LAW???

"If you will not fight for right when you can easily win without blood shed; if you will not fight when your victory is sure and not too costly; you may come to the moment when you will have to fight with all the odds against you and only a precarious chance of survival. There may even be a worse case. You may have to fight when there is no hope of victory, because it is better to perish than to live as slaves."

Winston Churchill

The contents of this page are not legal or tax advice.
It is for educational, informational, and hopefully inspirational purposes only.
No contract is expressed or implied.
The existence and contents of this web page are absolutely and unconditionally protected from Federal Government interference by the First amendment to the Constitution of these united States.
(Which, surprisingly, protects political opinions as well as pornography.)
All rights reserved, Without Prejudice, per U.C.C. 1-207,U.C.C. 1-103.6
This site may be linked to
This is NOT a "tax protest". All persons lawfully liable for a tax should pay it.

In the year 1776, one of these started!

Keep the fire burning!

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"Political activity alone cannot make a man free. Back of the ballot, he must have property, industry, skill, economy, intelligence, and character."
Booker T. Washington
God bless everyone,
In Peace and Liberty,
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"The poorest man may, in his cottage, bid defiance to all the forces of the Crown. It may be frail, it's roof may shake; the wind may blow through it; the storm may enter; the rain may enter; but the King of England may not enter; all his force dares not cross the threshhold of the ruined tenament"
"Necessity is the plea for every infringement of human freedom, It is the argument of tyrants; it is the creed of slaves."

Sir William Pitt
Addressing British house of Commons
18 November 1783

A freeman shall only be amerced for a small offence according to the measure of that offence. And for a great offence he shall be amerced according to the magnitude of the offence, saving his contenement; and a merchant, in the same way, saving his merchandize. And a villein, in the same way, if he fall under our mercy, shall be amerced saving his wainnage. And none of the aforesaid fines shall be imposed save upon oath of upright men from the neighbourhood.

Article 20
The Magna Carta

The link below is not an endorsment, as I have yet to read the Material

I may die a beggar, but with the Grace of God, I will not die a slave.

"Giving money and power to government
is like giving Whiskey and Car keys
to teenage boys"
P.J O'Rourke
Parliament of Whores

"In the early years, government was like a sapling oak tree, raising it's limbs and shading and protecting those below. And that mighty oak is now aged, with deep roots straining for more, and sagging limbs, threatening to fall and crush those under it. For over two hundred years, we have sent people to Washington TO MAKE LAWS. So we should not now be surprised at the unfortunate result, that they did do what we sent them there to do, and the laws, regulations, statutes and codes are suffocating the life out of the American Citizens. It is high time people ran for office with the pledge of
djf, Mar 1997

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Many years ago, men of strong mind, strong will and strong character used to meet in The Green Dragon Tavern.  Coming together secretly, and often late at night, they met upstairs in the Long Room.  Here . . . they planned the destiny of our country, and plotted the course of freedom which we now sail.   

This meeting site is owned by djf
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