YARD. A measure of length, containing three feet, or thirty-six

   YARD, estates.  A piece  of land  enclosed  for  the  use  and
accommodation of  the inhabitants  of a  house. In  England it is
nearly synonymous with backside. (q. v.) 1 Chitty, Pr. 176;  1 T.
R. 701.

   YARDLAND, old  Eng. law.  A quantity of land containing twenty
acres. Co. Litt. 69 a.

  YEAR. The period in which the revolution of the earth round the
sun, and  the accompanying  changes in  the order  of nature, are

   2. The  civil year  differs from  the astronomical, the latter
being composed  of 365  days, 5 hours, 48 seconds and a fraction,
while  the  former  consists,  sometimes  of  three  hundred  and
sixty-five days,  and at  others, in leap years, of three hundred
and sixty-six days.

  3. The year is divided into half-year which consists, according
to Co.  Litt. 135  b, of  182 days;  and quarter of a year, which
consists of  91 days,  Ibid. and  2 Roll.  Ab. 521,  1. 40. It is
further divided into twelve months.

  4. The civil year commences immediately after twelve o'clock at
night of  the thirty-first  day of  December, that  is the  first
moment of  the first  day of January, and ends at midnight of the
thirty-first day of December, twelve mouths thereafter. Vide Com.
Dig. Ann.;  2 Bl. Com. by Chitty, 140, n.;  Chitt. Pr. Index tit.
Time alteration  of the calendar (q. v.) from old to new style in
England, (see  Bissextile,) and  the colonies  of that country in
America, the  year in  chronological reckoning  was  supposed  to
cornmence with  the first day of January, although the legal year
did not  commence until  March 25th,  the intermediate time being
doubly indicated:   thus  February 15, 1724, and so on. This mode
of reckoning  was altered  by the  statute 24  Geo. II.  cap. 23,
which gave  rise to  an act  of assembly  of Pennsylvania, passed
March 11, 1752;  1 Sm. Laws, 217, conforming thereto, and also to
the repeal of the act of 1710.

   5. In  New York it is enacted that whenever the term "year" or
"years" is  or shall  be used  in any  statute, deed,  verbal  or
written contract,  or any  public or private instrument whatever,
the year  intended shall be taken to consist of three hundred and
sixty-five days;   half  a year of a hundred and eighty-two days;
and a  quarter of  a year  of ninety-two  days;  and the day of a
leap year,  and the  day immediately  preceeding, if  they  shall
occur in any period so to be computed, shall be reckoned together
as one day. Rev. Stat. part 1, c. 19, t. 1, §3.

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  YEAR AND DAY. This period of time is particularly recognized in
the law.  For example,  when a  judgment is  reversed,  a  party,
notwithstanding the  lapse of  time mentioned  in the  statute of
limitations pending  that action,  may commence  a  fresh  action
within a  year and a day of such reversal;  3 Chitty, Pract. 107;
again, after  a year  and a  day have  elapsed from  the  day  of
signing a judgment, no execution can be issued until the judgment
shall have  been revived by scire facias. Id. Bac. Ab. Execution,
H;  Tidd, Pr. 1103.

  2. In Scotland, it has been decided that in computing the term,
the year  and day  is to  be reckoned,  not by the number of days
which go  to make  up a year, but by the return of the day of the
next year  that bears  the same  denomination. 1 Bell's Com. 721,
5th edit.;   2  Stair, 842.  See Bac.  Ab. Descent,  I 3;   Ersk.
Princ. B. 1, t. 6, n. 22.

   YEAR BOOKS.  These were books of reports of cases in a regular
series from  tho reign  of the English King Ed. 11. inclusive, to
the time of Henry VIII, which were taken by the prothonotaries or
chief scribes  of the  courts, at  the expense  of the crown, and
published annually, whence their name Year Books. They consist of
eleven parts, namely:  Part 1. Maynard's Reports, temp. Edw. II.;
also divers  Memoranda of  the Exchequer, temp. Edward I. Part 2.
Reports in the first ten years of Edw. 111. Part. 3. Reports from
l7 to  39 Edward  III. Part  4. Reports from 40 to 50 Edward 111.
Part 5.  Liber Assisarum;  or Pleas of the Crown, temp. Edw. III.
Part 6. Reports temp. Hen. TV. and Hen. V. Parts 7 and 8. Annals,
or Reports  of Hen.  VI. during  his reign,  in 2  vols. Part  9.
Annals of  Edward IV.  Part 10.  Long Quinto;   or  Reports in  5
Edward IV. Part 11. Cases in the reigns of Edward V, Richard III,
Henry VII, and Henry VIII.

  YEARS, ESTATE FOR. Vide Estate for Years.

  YEAS AND NAYS. The list of members of a legislative body voting
in the affirmative and negative of a proposition is so called.

  2. The constitution of the United States, art. 1, s. 5, directs
that "the  yeas and  nays of  the members of either house, on any
question, shall,  at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be
entered on the journal." Vide 2 Story, Cons. 301.

   3. The  power of calling the yeas and nays is given by all the
constitutions of  the several  states, and  it is  not in general
restricted to  the request  of one-fifth  of the members present,
but may  be demanded  by a  less number  and, in some, one member
alone has the right to require the call of the yeas and nays.

   YEOMAN. In the United States this word does not appear to have
any very  exact meaning.  It is usually put as an addition to the
names of  parties in  declarations and indictments. In England it
signifies a free man who has land of the value of forty shillings
a year. 2 Inst. 668;  2 Dall. 92.

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   YIELDING AND  PAYING, contracts.  These words,  when used in a
lease, constitute a covenant on the part of the lessee to pay the
rent;   Platt on  Coven. 50;  3 Penna. Rep. 464;  1 Sid. 447, pl.
9;  2 Lev. 206;  3 T. R. 402;  1 Barn. & Cres. 416;  S. C. 2 Dow.
& Ry.  670;   but whether it be an express covenant or not, seems
not to  be settled.  Sty. 387,  406, 451;  Sid. 240, 266;  2 Lev.
206;  S. C., T. Jones, 102 3 T. R. 402.

   2. In  Pennsylvania, it  has been  decided to  be  a  covenant
running with  the land. 3 Penna. Reports, 464. Vide 1 Saund. 233,
n. 1;  9 Verm. R. 191.

   YORK, STATUTE  OF. The  name of  an English statute, passed 12
Edw. II.,  Anno Domini 1318, and so called because it was enacted
at York.  It contains  many wise  provisions and  explanations of
former statutes.  Barr.  on  the  Stat.  174.  There  were  other
statutes made  at York in the reign of Edw. III., but they do not
bear this name.

   YOUNG ANIMALS. It is a rule that the young of domestic or tame
animals belong  to the  owner of  the dam or mother, according to
the maxim  Partus sequitur ventrem. Dig. 6, 1, 5, 2;  Inst. 2, 1,

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