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Date: Sat, 11 Oct 1997 05:39:50 -0700
To: (Recipient list suppressed)
From: Paul Andrew Mitchell [address in tool bar]
Subject: SLS: The Real Dr. Kevorkian (fwd)

Dear Clients and Friends,

More on the organ transplant industry
now follows.

/s/ Paul Mitchell

>>from:  International Anti-Euthanasia Task Force
>>The Real Jack Kevorkian
>>Since the death of his first "patient," the media has frequently
>>portrayed Jack Kevorkian as a retired pathologist whose only goal is
>>to help end the unbearable suffering of terminal illness. The facts
>>tell a different story.
>>How did Jack Kevorkian become well known?
>>He actively sought publicity for years before achieving it by his
>>first "patient's" death.
>>His search for a first "patient" began in 1987 when he began placing
>>ads in the newspaper classified section (1) and handing out business
>>cards that read:
>>"Jack Kevorkian, MD... Bioethics and Obitiatry... Special Death
>>Counseling. By Appointment Only."(2)
>>In 1989 a medical society publication turned him down when he wanted
>>to advertise his death machine (3) and local newspapers rejected his
>>attempt to place a display ad, (4) but the rejections led to news
>>reports that gave him coverage previously lacking.
>>He "knew it would take a 'bulls-eye'" to establish his "new
>>specialty." (5) By the Fall of 1989, he was screening possible
>>"patients" with an eye to their publicity value.
>>One rejected "patient" was a woman with multiple sclerosis who, he
>>explained, was "not a suitable candidate for the first use of the
>>Mercitron [Kevorkian's death machine]" because her situation wouldn't
>>garner the favorable coverage he needed for the "initial event." (6)
>>He promised that hers would be the second death, but her relatives
>>heard what was going on and "whisked her off." (7) Kevorkian
>>continued his quest.
>>In March 1990, a Detroit paper carried an article stating:
>>"Applications are being accepted. Oppressed by a fatal disease, a
>>severe handicap, a crippling deformity? Write Box 261, Royal Oak,
>>Mich. 48068-0261. Show him proper compelling medical evidence that
>>you should die, and Dr. Jack Kevorkian will help you kill yourself,
>>free of charge." (8)
>>On June 4, 1990, he tested his machine for the first time at a
>>campsite near Detroit. As a result of that test, a 54 year-old Oregon
>>woman lay dead in the back of his rusty, old Volkswagen van. And Jack
>>Kevorkian, with her blood spattered on his hands and clothing, was on
>>his way to becoming known around the world.(9)
>>What medical experience and training does Jack Kevorkian have?
>>His professional record is notable for its lack of any credentials
>>which would qualify him to deal with depressed or dying people.
>>When asked about his medical career, Kevorkian said:
>>"Well, it's never been going well. I had an erratic practice...I had
>>so many controversial topics on my resume, that people were just
>>frightened to death of me. And it was hopeless to get a position." (10)
>>His professional experience has been primarily in the field of
>>pathology (dealing with dead bodies and body parts). (11)
>>With the exception of his residency and his military service in the
>>1950s, he has had no clinical experience with live patients. (12)
>>He has no training or expertise in diagnosing or treating depression,
>>and is completely lacking in any education or experience in the
>>fields of internal medicine, geriatrics, psychiatry and neurology. (13)
>>He has admitted that he is not qualified to practice medicine, even
>>as a general practitioner. (14) Yet he has said that the decision
>>about who is worthy to use his death machine is based on his medical
>>expertise. (15)
>>He graduated from the University of Michigan Medical School in 1952,
>>did his internship at the Henry Ford Hospital, (16) and his residency
>>in pathology at the University of Michigan and at Pontiac General
>>Hospital. (17)
>>He worked as a general pathologist at Pontiac General Hospital from
>>1960-1966. The circumstances of his leaving are unclear. Although he
>>said under oath that he'd never been asked to leave a hospital, he
>>later said he had been fired from Pontiac General. (18)
>>He then went to Wyandotte General Hospital where he worked for five
>>months, (19) after which he set up a computerized diagnostic clinic
>>that failed in about a year. He blamed the failure on other doctors
>>who wouldn't refer anyone to his clinic. (20)
>>In the 1970s he bounced back and forth between Michigan and California.
>>During this time he worked at four different hospitals and took a
>>2 1/2 year break from the medical profession. (21)
>>Although he calls himself a "retired" pathologist, he has not held a
>>full-time job for years. (22) His unemployment has been more
>>accurately described a "forced retirement." (23) He was even turned
>>down for a job as a paramedic in 1989. (24)
>>He does not have a license to practice medicine. His Michigan license
>>was suspended in 1991 and his California license was suspended in
>>1993. (25) According to the California Attorney General's office,
>>Kevorkian is "fundamentally unfit to practice medicine."(26)
>>Isn't Jack Kevorkian only trying to end suffering?
>>No. In fact, Kevorkian himself has made it very clear that that's not
>>what his activities are all about:
>>He has specifically stated that alleviation of agonizing pain and
>>torment is only a "minor benefit" in his overall scheme of things. (27)
>>His "ultimate aim," as he described it, is "not simply to help
>>suffering or doomed persons kill themselves." That activity, he said,
>>"is merely the first step, an early distasteful professional
>>obligation" which will lead to his goal. (28)
>>What is Jack Kevorkian's goal?
>>The establishment of deadly human experimentation as a medical
>>specialty is Kevorkian's goal.
>>"What I find most satisfying," he has said, "is the prospect of making
>>possible the performance of invaluable experiments" and other
>>undefined "medical acts." (29)
>>He has described a process by which "subjects," including infants,
>>children, even the mentally incompetent, would be used for
>>experiments " of any kind or complexity." (30) Then, if the subject's
>>body is alive after experimentation, "death may be induced" by such
>>means as "removal of organs for transplantation" or "a lethal dose of
>>a new or untested drug to be administered by an official
>>Infants, children and others incapable of giving direct or informed
>>consent are among the "potential candidates for the humane killing
>>known as euthanasia." He calls this "suicide by proxy." (32)
>>He has expressed his desire to assist in the deaths of 20 or 30
>>year-olds who are not ill, but who "just don't want to live
>>He has said he wants to establish death houses run by "untouchables"
>>where even an 18 year-old could go. (34) Under his supervision, he
>>claims, the "untouchables" would be "incorruptible." (35)
>>He has even drawn up plans for these death centers. Using Michigan
>>as a model for the nation, he has divided the state into eleven
>>killing zones.(36)
>>All killing...which would be considered a medical specialty called
>>"obitiatry" (from the word "obituary")...would be controlled through
>>"zone headquarters."(37)
>>The "practitioner" of medical killing would be called an
>>"obitiatrist"...literally "doctor of death." (38)
>>He has proposed a "auction market for available organs" (39) taken
>>from "subjects" who are "hopelessly crippled by arthritis or
>>malformations." (40) Part of the money from the dead disabled
>>person's auctioned organs could go to relatives whose financial
>>burdens would be eased and "their standard of living enhanced."(41)
>>How do Jack Kevorkian's "patients" die?
>>Of the twenty-five "patients" who died between June 1990 and August
>>1995, two died of lethal amounts of intravenous drugs. The remaining
>>twenty-three were gassed to death with carbon monoxide. (42)
>>Kevorkian described his original death machine in 1989:
>>"It's execution by lethal injection, except you do it yourself."(43)
>>"It's dignified, humane and painless, and the patient can do it in
>>the comfort of their own home anytime they want. "(44)
>>There have been several death machines which Kevorkian and his
>>attorney have called a "killing machine," "self-execution machine,"
>>"mercy machine, " "Thanatron," "Mercitron."
>>Model No. 1 (used for the first "patient")
>>Made from scrap aluminum, a toy car that Kevorkian had torn apart for
>>its pieces, and other scraps scavenged from garage sales and flea
>>markets, the contraption was a metal pole with bottles containing
>>drug solutions. (45)
>>A needle was inserted into the arm and the flow of harmless saline
>>started. After a switch was tripped, the solution of sedatives was to
>>begin, followed automatically by a paralyzing agent and potassium
>>chloride which was to result in heart slippage and death. (46)
>>(The heart was monitored by cardiography electrodes on the victim's
>>arms and legs.)(47)
>>The machine did not, in fact, work as Kevorkian had planned. Death
>>occurred earlier than he contended. (48)
>>Kevorkian later said that if the chemicals hadn't killed his first
>>"patient," he was prepared to "finish it myself." (49)
>>MODEL NO. 2 (used for the second "patient")
>>Kevorkian said the machine was "pretty much like my first one...any
>>high school physics student can put it together...but it has fewer
>>moving parts."(50)
>>Drug solutions did not include the paralyzing agent. (51)
>>MODEL NO. 3 (variations of which were used for "patients" number 3
>>through 25)
>>Consisted of a tightly fitted mask placed over the face, connected by
>>tubing to a canister of carbon monoxide gas. (52)
>>When activated, the flow of carbon monoxide began, resulting in death
>>from carbon monoxide poisoning which, Kevorkian has said, "often
>>produced a rosy color that makes the victim look better as a
>>corpse." (53)
>>Doesn't Jack Kevorkian limit his services to the terminally ill who
>>are not depressed?
>>Definitely not.
>>"Terminally ill," as defined in most proposals to legalize euthanasia
>>and assisted suicide, means a life expectancy of six months or
>>less. (54) Yet the majority of Jack Kevorkian's "patients" did not
>>fall within the meaning of "terminally ill." (Kevorkian has defined
>>terminal illness as "any disease that curtails life even for a
>>day." (55) His attorney, Geoffrey Fieger, has written, "Any disease
>>that curtails life-span is terminal."(56)
>>He has testified that, if a person is depressed over illness or
>>disability, "the depression becomes irrelevant. "(57)
>>He has written that the deaths of sick or disabled people would
>>benefit society:
>>"[T]he voluntary self-elimination of individual and mortally
>>diseased or crippled lives taken collectively can only enhance the
>>preservation of public health and welfare." (58)
>>When questioned by Time magazine, Kevorkian said that doctors will
>>decide who dies:
>>Q. How do you decide whom to help? Does the patient have to suffer
>>from a life-threatening illness?
>>A. No, of course not. And it doesn't have to be painful, as with
>>quadriplegia. But your life quality has to be nil.
>>Q. And who decides that?
>>A. That's up to physicians, and nobody can gainsay what doctors
>>say. It all boils down to the integrity of the doctors....
>>Q. What about people who suffer emotionally and want to die?
>>A. ...Once this gets going as a practice for physically debilitated
>>people, the psychiatrists are going to have a whopping job because
>>it is going to be up to them to decide how this fits into their
>>field. (59)
>>Twenty-seven people died from June 1990 through January 1996 using
>>one of Jack Kevorkian's machines.
>>Janet Adkins, 54, 6/4/90 Stanely Ball, 82, 2/4/93Donald O'Keefe,
>>73, 9/9/93Marjorie Wantz, 58, 10/23/91Mary Biernat, 73, 2/4/93
>>Merian Frederick, 72, 10/22/93 Sherry Miller, 43, 10/23/91 Elaine
>>Goldbaum, 47, 2/8/93 Ali Khalili, 61, 11/22/93 Susan Williams, 52,
>>5/15/92 Hugh Gale, 70, 2/15/93 Margaret Garrish, 72, 11/26/94 Lois
>>Hawes, 52, 9/26/92 Jonathon Grenz, 44, 2/18/93 John Evans, 78,
>>5/8/95 Catherine Andreyev, 46, 11/23/92 Martha Ruwart, 41, 2/18/93
>>Nicholas Loving, 27, 5/12/95 Marcella Lawrence, 67, 12/15/92 Ronald
>>Mansur, 54, 5/16/93 Erika Garcellano, 60, 6/26/95 Marguerite Tate,
>>70, 12/15/92 Thomas Hyde, 30, 8/4/93 Esther Cohan, 46, 8/21/95 Jack
>>Miller, 53, 1/20/93 Patricia Cashman, 58, 11/08/95 Linda Henslee, 48,
>>Published reports and court records indicate that the majority of
>>Kevorkian's twenty-seven "patients" did not fall within the generally
>>described category of "terminally ill" (life expectancy of six months
>>or less). Some reportedly could have lived for many more months or
>>even for many years.
>>In addition to illness, other conditions in their lives may have
>>contributed to the decisions of some to die. For example: Elaine
>>Goldbaum had financial problems and feared losing her house; (60)
>>Jonathon Grenz was said to be depressed and "overwhelmed with grief"
>>following his mother's death. (61) Ali Khalili, who drove his car
>>from Chicago to Michigan for his health had reportedly told a doctor
>>that "the quality of his life had been compromised by an anxiety
>>state. "(62)
>>Aren't we really talking about "death with dignity"?
>>No. The first three deaths provide an example.
>>JANET ADKINS, age 54, died 6/4/90, of a lethal dose of drugs.
>>She was in the early stages of Alzheimer's, and her own doctor said
>>she had at least ten years of productive life ahead of her. (63)
>>She had never met or talked with Kevorkian until she arrived in
>>Michigan two days before her death. All arrangements were made by
>>her husband, Ron, (64) who is now president of the Oregon Hemlock
>>Society. 65)
>>In the year before her death, Janet Adkins and her family were
>>counseled by a family therapist who was coordinator of the Oregon
>>Hemlock Society. (66)
>>According to an aunt, "She did not want to be a burden to her
>>husband and family"(67) and a friend explained, "She felt it [her
>>death] was a gift to her family, sparing them the burden of taking
>>care of her." (68)
>>At the videotaped meeting (two days before Adkins' death) arranged
>>to discuss her impending death, Janet Adkins never specifically
>>asked to be put to death by Kevorkian. She did not say she wanted
>>to commit suicide or to end her life. (69)
>>MARJORIE WANTZ, age 58, died 10/23/91 of a lethal dose of drugs.
>>She had experienced pelvic pain but, although a number of physicians
>>advised her that her pain was manageable, she did not follow through
>>with their recommendations. (70)
>>Kevorkian did not examine Ms. Wantz's pelvic area and met with her
>>only three times...once when they were guests on a television
>>program together, and another time, the day before her death to make
>>a videotape. (71)
>>She had no life-threatening condition. An autopsy found that she had
>>no illness or disease. (72)
>>She had reportedly been taking extremely large doses of Halcion (a
>>medication known to impair judgment) in the months preceding her
>>death. (73)
>>She had been hospitalized for psychiatric care on a number of
>>occasions. (74)
>>SHERRY MILLER, age 43, died 10/23/91 of carbon monoxide poisoning.
>>She had multiple sclerosis and could have lived for many years but
>>said she felt she was "becoming a burden on people."(73)
>>She had been suffering from depression which had been noted five
>>years earlier.(76)
>>She did not want to take the medication that had been prescribed
>>for depression. (77)
>>She testified that she no longer had any quality of life. (78)
>>Her death was to have been from a lethal dose of drugs but, after
>>repeated attempts and punctures to her arm, Kevorkian couldn't
>>insert a needle into her veins. He left her waiting for four hours
>>at the death site while he "went to town" to get supplies so she
>>could be gassed to death. (79)
>>Aren't other euthanasia leaders less radical than Kevorkian?
>>No, In fact, many have expressed support for him and approval of his
>>John Pridonoff, former executive director of the Hemlock Society
>>U.S.A., was on hand to publicly pledge support for Kevorkian's
>>efforts to launch a campaign in Michigan to legalize euthanasia and
>>assisted suicide for those who are "incapacitated." (80)
>>Pridonoff wrote, "Since October of 1992 The Hemlock Society U.S.A.
>>and I have indicated support for the goals and objectives of
>>Kevorkian." (81)
>>Sidney Rosoff, president of the Hemlock Society U.S.A. and former
>>board chairman of the Society for the Right to Die, said, "Dr.
>>Kevorkian really deserves a great deal of credit for doing what
>>other physicians are not doing or at least are not doing
>>openly." (82)
>>In a letter to the New York Times, Rosoff wrote, "Dr. Kevorkian
>>acted in the tradition of a caring and courageous physician."
>>The National Hemlock Society (now called the Hemlock Society
>>U.S.A.), in a press release, said, "Hemlock would prefer that
>>actions like those of Dr. Kevorkian were clearly made legal and not
>>subject to ambiguity."(84)
>>In another press release, Hemlock declared, "Dr. Kevorkian's
>>motive was purely humanitarian."(85)
>>Derek Humphry, co-founder of the Hemlock Society and author of the
>>suicide manual, Final Exit, said, "One could quibble about things
>>with Dr. Kevorkian, but basically he's along the same lines as
>>me...He ought to be able to do these things in hospitals and not in
>>the back of a van."(86)
>>Humphry is also quoted as saying that Kevorkian is "a very brave
>>pioneer who is trying to shock the medical profession into accepting
>>voluntary euthanasia..."(87) On another occasion, Humphry
>>commented, "It's a pincer movement. He's (Kevorkian) coming at it
>>through the courts and we in the right-to-die movement are coming
>>through the legislatures."(88)
>>Pit Bakker, chairwoman of the Dutch Voluntary Society, called
>>Kevorkian's death machine, "a technical innovation which brings no
>>new ethical elements" to euthanasia debate.
>>Janet Good, president of Hemlock of Michigan, praised Kevorkian:
>>"He's compassionate, he's courageous; thank God we have a doctor
>>like him."(90)
>>Is Opposition to assisted suicide and euthanasia just an attempt by
>>religious fanatics to impose their beliefs on others?
>>Not by a long shot.
>>Jack Kevorkian and his attorneys seize every opportunity to label
>>opponents as "religious nuts"(91) and "Nazis."(92) They've carried
>>their name calling to outlandish extremes, including even columnist
>>Ellen Goodman in the "religious nut" category.(93) They've claimed
>>that the Michigan legislature is controlled by "a right-wing fanatic
>>religious minority," (94) and that the Medical Board of California
>>is "a religious cult."(95) They've maintained that a vote of the
>>people would show that the public wants assisted suicide and
>>Yet, since Kevorkian began sending people to the grave, voters in
>>Washington and California have defeated ballot initiatives that
>>would have legalized Kevorkian-type practices. (97) Neither state
>>is known as a bastion of religious activism.
>>During the California campaign, major newspapers including the
>>Los Angeles Times and the San Francisco Chronicle opposed the
>>measure. (98) So did organizations like the California State Hospice
>>Association and California Commission on Aging.(99) These could
>>scarcely be described as religious publications or groups.
>>Journalists and ethicists have also expressed strong opposition to
>>the Kevorkian solution:
>>Steven Miles, a Minneapolis physician who has analyzed judicial
>>opinions for the American Society of Law and Medicine, has explained
>>that Kevorkian acts "as a mirror for the hatred of disability--the
>>idea that our bodies must be perfect."(100)
>>USA Today's Diane Culbertson has predicted that if Kevorkian's
>>"type of killer medicine becomes accepted, what horrors the future
>>could hold. The progression is obvious; from assisted death to
>>suggesting death to insisting on death."
>>Debra Saunders of the San Francisco Chronicle has observed that
>>"the death doc's forthright embrace of body-parts harvesting and
>>auctions show the euthanasia movement for what it very easily could
>>turn into--a cold-blooded death machine that finds expanding reasons
>>and social benefits in suicide."(102)
>>Syndicated columnist Charles Krauthammer has written, "Ours is a
>>society with 31,000 suicides a year, a rate 30 percent higher that
>>the murder rate about which people are in such a panic today. Our
>>problem is not the difficulty of committing suicide, but the
>>Are individuals who point out the dangers of euthanasia and assisted
>>suicide seeking to impose suffering on others?
>>On the contrary.
>>Those who do the most to alleviate suffering--the man who brings
>>meals to AIDS patients, the woman who cares for a frail parent, the
>>hospice nurse whose patients are lovingly comforted, the oncologist
>>who takes the time to kill pain, not patients--are the most vocal in
>>their opposition to the practices that Kevorkian considers ethical.
>>But people with disabilities are the most eloquent in pointing out
>>that what is really at issue in much of the promotion of assisted
>>suicide is a deeply rooted prejudice in our society against those
>>who are severely disabled--a prejudice characterized by bigots who
>>begrudge access to independent living or jobs, but rush to provide
>>access to the grave. Disability rights leaders make their concern
>>very clear:
>>"Kevorkian is sending out a message that, if you have a physical
>>disease, it is not OK to go on living," according to Patricia
>>McDonald of the Michigan Chapter of the National Multiple Sclerosis
>>Society. (104)
>>Ronald Seigel, chief of the Michigan Democrat's Handicapper Caucus
>>has said that if Kevorkian were to prevail it would be "open season
>>on the handicapped."(105)
>>"Choice is becoming a code word for the powerful eliminating the
>>powerless," wrote Bill Bolte, president of Barrier Busters Inc.
>>Warning that Kevorkian's plans pose a deadly threat to all severely
>>disabled people, Bolte said, "We may find personally that our own
>>lives are needlessly shortened as the death industry begins drawing
>>off funds from aid to the living."(106)
>>What does it all mean?
>>At a press conference after he was charged in the death of one
>>"patient," Kevorkian said, "You know what's on trial? Your
>>civilization and your society."(107)
>>He was correct. Our civilization and our society are at stake.
>>Jack Kevorkian typifies the direction in which the euthanasia
>>movement is headed. His goals and actions provide an excellent
>>illustration of what could become commonplace if his dark vision of
>>the future were to become a reality.
>>1. Jack Kevorkian, Prescription Medicide (New York,: Prometheus
>>Books, 1991), p.196
>>2. "Death, by appointment only," Health Care Weekly Review,
>>3. Rita Marker, Deadly Compassion--The Death of Ann Humphry and
>>the Truth About Euthanasia (New York: William Morrow and Company,
>>1993). p. 166.
>>4. Kevorkian, Prescription Medicide, p.215.
>>5. Ibid.
>>6. Ibid. p.219(emphasis added)
>>8."In Royal Oak: The Death Machine," Detroit Free Press Magazine,
>>9.Marker, Deadly Compassion,pp. 161-163.
>>10. Jack Kevorkian, Speech given to the National Press Club,
>>Washington, D.C., October 27,1992.
>>11.Michigan v Kevorkian, 92-115190-FC, 92-DA-5303-AR, Plaintiff's
>>Brief, 4/22/92,p.31.
>>12. Ibid.
>>13. In The Matter of the Accusation and First Supplemental
>>Accusation Against Jack Kevorkian before the Division of Medical
>>Quality, Medical Board of California, Department of Consumer
>>Affairs, State of California, Complainant's Hearing Brief, Case
>>No. D-5111,OAH No, L-60083, 12/28/93, p.29. Hereafter cited as
>>California Medical Board, Complainant's Brief, 12/28/93.
>>14. Ibid., pp. 11-12.
>>15. Transcript of Testimony of Jack Kevorkian, M.D., in Case
>>No. 90-3909630-AZ, Michigan v. Kevorkian, Oakland County (MI)
>>Circuit Court, 6/8/90, p.40. Hereafter cited as Kevorkian
>>Testimony, 6/8/90.
>>16.Californian Medical Board, Complainant's Brief, 12/28/93, p.9.
>>17. Ibid.
>>18. Ibid., p.10.
>>19. Kevorkian Testimony, 6/8/90.p.19.
>>20. Ibid.
>>21. California Medical Board, Complainant's Brief, 12/28/93,pp.10-11.
>>22. "Death, by appointment only," Health Care Weekly Review,
>>August 24, 1987.
>>23. "Mercy's Friend or Foe?" Newsweek, December 28, 1992,p.36.
>>24."Death Becomes Him," Contra Costa Times, 12/14/93, p.2F and
>>"I Am Not Afraid," Detroit Free Press Magazine, 2/3/91, p.8.
>>25."California Suspends Kevorkian's License," Los Angeles Times,
>>4/28/93, p.A3.
>>26. California Medical Board, Complainants Brief, 12/28/93, p. 19.
>>27. "Medicide: The Goodness of Planned Death--An Interview with
>>Dr. Jack Kevorkian," Free Inquiry, vol.11, no. 4 (Fall l991), p. 15.
>>Hereafter cited as "Interview."
>>28.Kevorkian, Prescription: Medicide, p. 214 (emphasis added).
>>29. Ibid.
>>30. Jack Kevorkian, "A Comprehensive Bioethical Code for Medical
>>Exploitation Of Humans Facing Imminent and Unavoidable Death,"
>>Medicine and Law, vol. 5 (1986), pp.194-195.
>>31. Ibid., p 195.
>>32. Kevorkian, Prescription: Medicide, p. 200.
>>33. Alice Gilbert, "The Legal Response to Assisted Suicide," Ohio
>>Northern University Law Review, vol. 20, no. 3 (1994), p. 674 and
>>California Medical Board, Complainants Brief, 12/28/93, p. 35.
>>34. Gilbert, Ohio Northern University Law Review (1994), p. 674.
>>35. "Suicide device mustn't be used, judge rules", Grand Rapids
>>Press, 6/9/90 and Kevorkian Testimony, 6/8/90,pp. 11-12.
>>36. Jack Kevorkian, "A Fail-Safe Model for Justifiable
>>Medically-Assisted Suicide," American Journal of Forensic
>>Psychiatry, vol. 13, no. 1 (1992), pp. 11 & 28.
>>37. Ibid., pp. 11-12.
>>38. Ibid., p. 11.
>>39. Jack Kevorkian, "A Controlled Auction Market Is a Practical
>>Solution to the Shortage of Transplantable Organs," Medicine and
>>Law, vol. 11, nos. 1,2 (1992), p. 49.
>>40. Ibid., p. 51.
>>41. Ibid., pp. 52-53.
>>42. After the deaths of Sherry Miller and Marjorie Wantz in 1991,
>>Kevorkian's Michigan medical license was suspended, leaving him
>>without access to controlled drugs.
>>43. "Doctor Invents 'Self-Execution' Machine," San Francisco
>>Chronicle, 10/28/89.
>>44. "Suicide Machine Used for First Time," San Francisco
>>Chronicle, 6/6/90, p. A4, referring to a 1989 Detroit Free Press
>>45. "In Royal Oak: The Death Machine," Detroit Free Press
>>Magazine, 3/18/1990 and "A Vital Woman Chooses Death," People
>>Magazine, 6/25/90,p.43.
>>46. "New Kevorkian 'death machine,'" Medical Tribune, 4/4/91.
>>47. "Lethal Injection," Detroit News 6/6/90, p. 6A.
>>48. In his testimony before Judge Alice Gilbert, Dr. Fredric
>>Rieders, laboratory director at National Medical Services, Inc.,
>>said the death machine did not work as Kevorkian had contended.
>>Rather than dying from the effects of potassium chloride,
>>Janet Adkins had died of an overdose of the sedative.
>>"Witness: Kevorkian was ready to 'finish job,'" Detroit News.
>>49. "Witness: Kevorkian was ready to 'finish job'" Detroit
>>News, 12/13/90.
>>50. "Suicide Doctor Says He Has Another Death Machine", San
>>Francisco Chronicle, 3/19/91. p.A1.
>>51. Medical Tribune, 4/4/91.
>>52."Michigan Furor Over Doctor's Role in 2 More Suicides," San
>>Francisco Chronicle, 10/25/91, p. A3; "Kevorkian watches as 2 women
>>kill themselves with suicide machines," Detroit News, 10/24/91; and
>>Michigan v. Kevorkian, 4/11/92, p. xviii.
>>53. Kevorkian, Prescription: Medicide, p. 193. (Kevorkian had
>>originally intended to use this method when he began searching for
>>a "patient" in 1987.)
>>54. Washington Initiative 119, Sec. 2 (7); California Proposition
>>161, Sec. 2525.2 (j); Oregon "Death with Dignity Act," Sec. 1.01 (12).
>>55. J. Kevorkian, in speech to National Press Club. "'Dr. Death':
>>No law is needed on euthanasia," USA Today, October 28, 1992, p. 6A.
>>56. Geoffrey Fieger, Letter to the Editor, Detroit Free Press, 12/11/90.
>>57. Kevorkian Testimony, 6/8/90, pp.43-44.
>>58. Jack Kevorkian, Written Statement to Court, 8/17/90, p. 11
>>(emphasis in orginal).
>>59. "Kevorkian Speaks His Mind," Time, 5/31/93, p. 39.
>>60. "Kevorkian assists in 12th suicide," Detroit News, 2/9/93.
>>61. "Kevorkian: Death must be an option," USA Today, 2/22/94, p.2A.
>>62. "While Out on Bail, Kevorkian Attends a Doctor's Suicide," New
>>York Times, 11/23/93, p. A1.
>>63. "Profession condemns doctor," Detroit Free Press, 6/7/90, p. 14A.
>>64. "Doctor Ordered Not to Use Suicide Device," San Francisco
>>Chronicle, 6/9/90, p. A1.
>>65. "Kevorkian Begins Ballot Drive for Suicide Measure," New York
>>Times, 1/31/94, p.A6.
>>66. Letter to the Editor, New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 324,
>>no. 20 (May 16, 1991), pp. 1434-1435.
>>67. "What Drove Woman to Suicide Machine," San Francisco Chronicle,
>>6/7/90, p. A2.
>>68. "A Vital Woman Chooses Death," People Magazine, 6/25/90, p. 42.
>>69. Gilbert, Ohio Northern University Law Review, p. 679 and
>>California Medical Board, Complainant's Brief, 12/28/93, p. 59.
>>70. California Medical Board, Complainant's Brief, 12/28/93, p. 64.
>>71. Michigan v. Kevorkian, 4/11/92, p. xi.
>>72."Murder charges for Dr. Death? "Detroit News, 12/19/91.
>>73. "Kevorkian suicide patient was on Halcion," Detroit News,
>>11/3/91. Dr. Anthony Kales, head of psychiatry at Penn State
>>University, questioned the ability of a person on Halcion to make
>>appropriate judgments. He said, "When I talk with patients who use
>>Halcion, I'm never quite sure if they even mean what they say.
>>It impairs their judgment that much."
>>74. Michigan v. Kevorkian, 4/22/92, pp. xi-xiii.
>>75. Michigan v. Kevorkian, Oakland County Circuit Court,
>>92-115190-FC, 92-DA-5303-AR, Plaintiff's Brief in Support of Answer
>>to Motion to Quash Information and Dismiss Case, 4/22/92, p. xiv.
>>Hereafter cited at Michigan v.Kevorkian, 4/22/92.
>>76. California Medical Board, Complainant's Brief, 12/28/93, p. 67.
>>77. Transcript of Testimony of Sherry Miller, in Case
>>No. 90-390963-AZ, Michigan v. Kevorkian, Oakland County (MI)
>>Circuit Court, 6/8/90, pp. 184-187.
>>78. Ibid. pp. 156-157.
>>79. Michigan v. Kevorkian, 4/22/92, p. ix.
>>80. Time Lines (newsletter of the Hemlock Society U.S.A.),
>>January-February 1994, p. 1.
>>81. John Pridonoff, "The Law and Dr. Kevorkian," Time Lines,
>>January-February, 1994, p. 1. (emphasis added.)
>>82. Sidney Rosoff, in an interview on "Buchanan and Company," a
>>nationally syndicated radio program, 8/20/93.
>>83. Sidney Rosoff, in a letter to the editor, New York Times, 8/21/93.
>>84.National Hemlock Society, Press release, Eugene, Oregon, 6/6/90.
>>85. National Hemlock Society, Press release, Eugene, Oregon, 10/24/91.
>>86. "Founder defends euthanasia action," The Lima News (Lima, Ohio),
>>10/16/93, p. B1.
>>87. Paul Verschuur, "Euthanasia Advocates Say Death Machine Raises
>>Few New Issues,"AP wire service, 6/7/90.
>>88. "Dr. Death's trial intrigues legal experts," The Beacon Journal
>>(Akron, Ohio), 8/19/93, p. A6.
>>89. Verschuur, AP wire service, 6/7/90.
>>90. "Doctor who helped in death gets support," Detroit Free Press,
>>91. "Defiant Kevorkian vows to break Michigan law," Vindicator
>>(Youngstown, OH), 2/21/93, p. A13.
>>92. "Kevorkian Assists Another," Detroit Free Press, 2/16/93.
>>93. Ellen Goodman, "Wiping Off the Slate," San Francisco Chronicle,
>>12/28/93, p. A17.
>>94. "Kevorkian helps 12th patient end life," Detroit Free Press,
>>95. "California Suspends Kevorkian's License," Los Angeles Times,
>>4/28/93, p. A3.
>>96. "Suicide may be murder," Detroit Free Press, 2/6/93. p. 10A.
>>97. Washington voters defeated Initiative 119 in 1991, California
>>citizens turned down a similar measure, Proposition 161, in 1992.
>>98. "Physician-Assisted Death: Is This Measure the Answer?"
>>Los Angeles Times, 10/14/92 and "The Chronicle Recommends,"
>>San Francisco Chronicle, 10/29/92.
>>99."NO on 161" campaign material.
>>100. "Would it have made a difference if they were men?" Detroit
>>Free Press, 11/4/91.
>>101. "Killing mustn't be part of the healing art," USA Today,
>>10/28/91, p. 12A.
>>102. Syndicated columnist, Debra Saunders, "Frankenstein Lives in
>>Michigan," San Francisco Chronicle, 3/3/93, p. A14.
>>103. Charles Krauthammer, "Make Dr. Kevorkian a test case--and
>>then throw the book at him," Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 23/6/93, p.1B.
>>104. 12th suicide Kevorkian assists in", Detroit News, 12/9/9/3, p. 1B
>>(emphasis added).
>>105. "Kevorkian Charged in Assisted Suicide," Washington Post,
>>8/18/93, p.11A.
>>106. Bill Bolte, "Be wary of these 'last rights,'" USA Today, 2/24/93,
>>p. 13A.
>>107. "As He Hoped, Kevorkian is Charged in Suicide," New York Times,
>>8/18/93, p. A7.
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