Time: Fri Dec 12 13:18:48 1997
From: Paul Andrew Mitchell [address in tool bar]
Subject: SLS: Beware the Broad Brush!! (fwd)
Bcc: sls

>	The following article was published in the December issue of 
>Police magazine published by Bobit Publishing Co., 21061 S. Western Ave., 
>Torrance, CA 90501-9998 - e-mail:police@bobit.com.
>	I am posting it here even though I realize that most of the 
>members of this list may not hold sympathies with some of the groups 
>mentioned herein. I am posting it to show, as the subject line attempts 
>to imply, what a "broad brush" is being used to lump anyone who doesn't 
>agree with the government together under the heading of "patriots," and 
>these patriots are all to be considered armed and dangerous, and enemies 
>of the state.
>	On the title page is a photo taken by the author to, again, 
>demonstrate this broad brush technique. It is a photograph of various 
>"patriot" publications.  In the photograph are copies of The Spotlight, 
>The Resister, The New American, Soldier of Fortune, Paladin Press 
>catalog, Delta Press catalog. Jack McLamb's Operation Vampire Killer 
>2000, William Pierce's "Turner Diaries" and "Hunter," plus Lyle Stuart's 
>publication of, "Turner Diaries." There are a few who's titles or authors 
>are only partially legible,i.e."Freedom from War:The United States Program for 
>General and Complete Disarmament in a Peaceful World," "OKBOMB! 
>Conspiracy and Cover-up,""Home Workshop Explosives Catalog," "Schiller 
>Institute." Also, stuck in amongs all of the above is a catalog from 
>Aaron Zellman's organization,"Jews for the Preservation of Firearms 
>Ownership." I scanned this photo and was going to attack it, but not 
>knowing what types of e-mail readers most are using, I didn't want to run 
>the risk of causing problems.
>I am posting the article as it appeared, typos and all. FYI!!
>Right-Wing Terrorism's Renewed Threat in the USA
>Such recent incidents as Waco and the Oklahoma City Bombing point to particular
>risks for law officers who sometimes face recruitment pressures from these groups.
>                                   BY KATHY MARKS
>   Escalating right-wing terrorism poses a more ominous and insidious threat than ever
>before to law enforcement as large numbers of citizens seemingly are refusing to obey
>laws and submit to governmental control.
>   These patriots or "sovereign citizens" are thwarting tax laws, taking over courthouses,
>and calling for common-law courts to pass death sentences on prosecutors, judges and
>lawmen who dare to enforce the law.  The bombing of the Oklahoma City federal building
>showed just how far anti-government supporters are willing to go.
>   "Without a doubt, patriot groups are a growing problem, even after the Oklahoma City
>Bombing and the publicity after it," said Mark Potok, director of Publications and
>Information of the Project of the Southern Poverty Law Center's Klanwatch. 
>   "The number of patriots and militia members is not known due to secrecy and estimates
>are so varied, they are not accurate," Motok told POLICE.  "But the most current report
>shows 858 identified patriot organizations with 380 of these being militia groups," he
>     Distrust of the government, seeded with incidents such as the sieges at Waco and Ruby
>Ridge, has created a new subgroup of Americans.  They talk about conspiracy theories,
>gun control, and government takeover by the United Nations.  Domestic terrorist attacks
>and conspiracies to attack government facilities have increased.
>     Such domestic terrorist attacks often involve right-wing extremists.  They identify with
>conservative politics, nationalism, their own brand of patriotism and religiosity, with frequent
>involvement in racist activities.  When their political and religious activities stay within the
>realm of legal and constitutionally protected activities, they are not a concern for law
>enforcement officers.  It is when they step over the line and commit criminal acts or violate
>the rights of others that they become a legitimate concern for police scrutiny.
>     "Everyone is concerned about the recent proliferation of such groups," said National
>FOP (Fraternal Order of Police) Executive Director Jim Pasco.  "Officers have found
>themselves in deadly situations with no prior warning," he told POLICE.
>     The post-Civil War Ku Klux Klan was the best known of right-wing extremist groups, with
>intimidation of freed blacks, lynchings, beatings and murder common.  The Klan declined
>in power to arise in times of social unrest, such as after the Brown vs.  Board of Education
>ruling in 1954.
>     The Minutemen in the 1960s used guerrilla tactics, gathering of intelligence information,
>a hit list of their enemies, and formation of secret cells to thwart infiltration. 
>     The Christian Patriots Defense League in the 1970s combined paramilitary training,
>including "Freedom Festivals" with conspiracy theories about the government.
>     "The public is truly concerned about people out there who are antigovernment and
>antipolice," said Michael Rowland, state's attorney of Franklin County, Ill., the site of a Klan
>rally and recent threats against a federal judge by the Illinois Freedom Militia: Southern
>             Christian Identity
>    Christian Identity groups began springing up during the 1970s and 1980s.  This "religion"
>served as a glue to hold together disparate groups and ideas, with its leaders aligning with
>patriot and militia groups.  Christian Identity has its own interpretation of the Bible
>combined with racist ideas, which holds that white Anglo-Saxons of American and Euro-
>pean descent are the true descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel and the Midwest
>United States is the Promised Land, not current-day Israel.
>     The Posse Comitatus and Christian Identity were brought to national attention when the
>Posse's Gordon Kahl killed federal agents in 1983 when they tried to serve tax evasion
>warrants.  Kahl became a folk hero as he dodged federal agents for months.  His death
>made him a martyr for the right-wing movement.
>           Bob Mathews and the Order of Silent Brotherhood
>   Kahl's death was the main concern at the 1983 Aryan Nations World Congress where
>members of various white rightwing groups meet.  Bob Mathews of the National Alliance
>was inspired to avenge Kahl's death and start The Order or Silent Brotherhood.  The Order
>was an effort to bankroll a new whites-only American nation in the five Pacific Northwest
>   The Order committed the largest Brinks robbery in history at that time and murdered a
>Missouri state trooper and a prominent Jewish talk show host. They had plans to shut 
>down a major city through terrorism.  Most of the $4 million plus from the armored car heist
>and robberies was never recovered and probably had already been distributed to groups
>of similar beliefs. The Order was important because it represented a combined effort of
>various right-wing groups, including the Klan, Aryan Nations, National Alliance, and
>Christian Identity people.
>          William Pierce and the National Alliance
>    Bob Mathews came by his teachings from the National Alliance, the work of William
>Pierce, a former follower of George Lincoln Rockwell of the American Nazi Party.  Pierce
>has taken a leadership role by providing information to thousands of mail-order members
>and via the Internet, short-wave and AM radio stations and many publications through his
>National Vanguard Books. He is best known as the author of the fictional novel, "The
>Tumer Diaries," allegedly used as the blueprint for The Order and the inspiration for the
>Oklahoma City bombing.
>    The Oklahoma City bombing closely paralleled a chapter in "The Turner Diaries" which
>described how the FBI headquarters was blown up by a truck bomb made of ammonium
>nitrate at nearly the exact time the Alfred P. Murrah Building was destroyed.  In late 1995,
>Pierce directed his followers to develop militia contacts in order that the National Alliance
>could influence militia groups.
>            Randy Weaver and Ruby Ridge, Idaho
>    Several incidents have fueled the fires of discontent and distrust of the government.  The
>membership of citizen militias soared after situations when the federal government
>obviously made grievous errors or went beyond its constitutional bounds.
>    Federal Marshal William Degan, Vicki Weaver, and her teen-age son, Samuel, died at
>Ruby Ridge.  Their deaths came after Randy Weaver failed to appear for court after being
>charged with sawing off the barrels of two shotguns.  Federal agents sought to arrest him
>for several months and a firefight began after Sammy Weaver and Weaver's friend, Kevin
>Harris, surprised federal agents doing surveillance in the woods.  It is still disputed who
>fired the first shots but Marshal Degan and Sammy Weaver died there.
>    Vicki Weaver was killed the next day with her infant in her arms.  This came after a
>questionable and probably illegal and unconstitutional FBI order was issued that agents
>"could and should" shoot to kill any armed adult in sight. Snipers had been given orders
>to not en-danger any of the children in the cabin.
>    Senate hearings concluded that the revised "rules of engagement" were im proper and
>criticized the federal agencies involved for their lack of willingness to take charge, make
>decision, and accept responsibility for the outcome of their decisions.  They criticized the
>inaccurate and exaggerated intelligence information used to target Randy Weaver as a
>dangerous one-man commando squad and the failure to attempt to negotiate a peaceful
>end before the sniper opened fire.
>   Waco and the Branch Davidians
>   Shortly after Ruby Ridge, another crisis in federal law enforcement hit the media. 
>Attempts by the Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms agency to serve warrants for federal
>firearms violations in 1993 at the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas, ended in
>the deaths of four federal agents and several Branch Davidians.  The assault on the 
>compound culminated in a 51 -day siege ending in the fiery deaths of 76 Branch 
>Davidians, including 25 children on April 19,1993.
>   WACO! continues to be a battle cry for anti-government dissidents.  Congressional
>hearings questioned the wisdom of initiating the raid at all when the planners knew David
>Koresh had already been tipped.  Those in charge used faulty intelligence and ignored their
>own psychological and religious consultants in the final assault.
>   The fire that started at Waco fueled Timothy McVeigh's anger and probably precipitated
>the Oklahoma City bombing.  Militia groups were started with Waco in mind, such as the
>51st Missouri Militia, named for the 51-day siege.
>   April 19 became a national militia holiday.
>       Oklahoma City Bombing
>   The lives of 169 victims of the Oklahoma City bombing and their families came crashing
>to the pavement on April 19, 1995.  McVeigh was allegedly obsessed with the Waco siege. 
>His fictitious driver's license was issued April 19, 1993, the day the Branch Davidian siege
>ended.  From evidence presented at his federal trial, it appeared that the bombing was an
>act of retribution for the deaths at Waco.
>   McVeigh carried "The Tumer Diaries " everywhere with him and sold the book at guns
>shows.  He visited the scene of the carnage at Waco and the Oklahoma City bombing was
>orchestrated to follow the description of the bombing of an FBI building in "The Tumer
> McVeigh was convicted and sentenced to death, but many claim he is part of a conspiracy
>much larger than simply he and his co-conspirator Terry Nichols.
>        The Militia Movement and Patriot Groups
>   The militia movement emerged in Montana, Idaho, Michigan, Florida, Indiana, and
>spread to other states, gaining much impetus from Waco and Ruby Ridge.  The form
>varied and militias did not claim allegiance to any one national organization.  Most militias
>have not been tied to illegal activities, although more than 400 armed militias have been
> identified as well as that many more loosely identified "patriot" groups.
>    Militia members have been arrested in Washington state, Arizona, Florida, Georgia and
>West Virginia.  Arrests have generally involved bombing conspiracies, or weapons and
>explosives charges.  The Michigan Militia gained much publicity after the Oklahoma City
> bombing when Terry Nichols was al legedly tied to it.
>    The Militia of Montana (MOM) was formed by friends of Randy Weaver. MOM's
>spokesperson, Bob Fletcher, predicted shortly after the Oklahoma City bombing, "Expect
>more bombs."
>    Militias claim authority from the Constitution and believe laws restricting gun ownership
>to be unconstitutional.  It is difficult sometimes to separate these militia-style groups from
>other "patriot" groups.  Some of these "patriot" groups seek to clog the courts with red tape
>by filing hundreds of property liens and other obstructive documents.  They set up their
>own "common-law" governments and claim to be "sovereign" citizens, immune from the
>restrictions of state and federal government and as such, not required to pay taxes.
>    Militias often have their own "militia manuals" which outline codes of conduct, training
>and strategy.  One widely distributed manual, advertised in "Shotgun News," is the "U.S.
>Militiaman's Handbook." This handbook calls for a regular militia or "Minutemen" to meet
>openly and a second secret organization,  called the "Sons of Liberty," to train in secret
>with the two groups sometimes interwoven.
>    Militias encourage the use of "leaderless resistance." This idea is not new but was
>popularized by Louis Beam of the Texas Klan and Aryan Nations in the 1992 edition of his
>"Seditionist" newsletter.
>    Police officers performing routine traffic stops are sometimes put at risk when stopping
>militia members or "sovereign" citizens.
>    "The Sovereignty movement is the fastest growing segment of the extremist movement,"
>said Klanwatch's Potok.  "The primary danger is that these people continue to threaten
>judges and other public officials and there is a danger of the people involved being killed
>because of patriot beliefs."
>   Frazeyburg, Ohio, was the scene of a shooting with a man who claimed to be "militia 
>chaplain" of the Ohio Unorganized Militia and "chief justice" of the militia's common-law
>court.  Michael Hill, a former Canton, Ohio, police officer was stopped by Sgt.  Matt May
>when Hill's vehicle displayed no registration, instead sporting a "Ohio Militia 3-13 Chaplain"
>license plate.
>    Capt. Larry Sims of the Muskingum County Sheriff's Department in Zanesville
>investigated the shooting and described the events: Hill exited his vehicle once, then fled
>the scene in his car to stop again and again exit the vehicle. He brandished an Ithaca
>1911A .45-caliber semiautomatic pistol which he pointed toward May who drew his own
>weapon and fired, killing Hill.
>    Sims stated that the small departments in his area never expected something like that
>to happen and that "ongoing training is needed to learn new trends and hear what other
>agencies are dealing with."  
>    Chief Don Henry of Frazeyburg was a patrol officer at the time of the June 1995 incident.
>He stated, "Even in a small town, every stop could be the serious one and should be
>looked on as that. Every department should prepare themselves for the inevitability of such
>            Montana Freemen  and 'We The People'                     
>    The Montana Freemen have the distinction of claiming the longest siege in law
>enforcement history - 81 days. They  thought they had learned ways to avoid losing family
>farms through bogus property liens and worthless money orders  by attending classes held
>by Roy  Schwasinger of We the People. 
>    We the People is a nationwide anti-government group that has held classes, attended
>by hundreds all over the country at $300 a head, to teach people ways  to avoid debt and
>taxes. They supply kits  to file liens against government officials and then use the liens as
>assets when ap plying for credit. The claims are ad dressed to "Our One Supreme Court"
>or  "The Common Law Court."                            
>    We the People also teaches the use of bogus money orders to pay unsuspecting 
>creditors. Many We the People members, including their founder, Schwasinger, have been
>indicted or are serving prison sentences for their activities.          
>     Common-law courts, such as those involved with We the People, may use militias as
>their enforcement arms. Common-law courts claim authority of the law for themselves and
>declare themselves outside the jurisdiction of state and federal laws. They issue property
>liens, proclaim their right to arrest, judge and even sentence to death their enemies, usually
>local police, judges and prosecutors.
>Implications for Law Officers
>    Right-wing terrorism groups have grown rapidly since the 1970s and clearly present an
>organized threat to law enforcement. The inevitability of domestic terrorist acts has become
>clear but few efforts have been made to develop a coordinated system of information about
>such terrorism or a program for training and intelligence gathering.
>  Certain facts become evident looking at the picture of right-wing terrorism that  has
>evolved in the United States in the past two decades.
>   First, the right-wing movement is organized and technologically sophisticated. They have
>the capability of instantly contacting large numbers of members via the Internet and
>organized fax networks, which increases the risk of reinforcements arriving in siege
>situations.  Survival expos and gun shows present opportunities to arm and supply
>    Second, people motivated by their religious beliefs can be doubly dangerous. The
>Christian Identity religion tells them that blacks are subhuman, Jews are the children of
>Satan and abortion clinic doctors are serial killers.
>    Third, infiltration and intelligence-gathering involving these groups and individuals will
>become increasingly more difficult.  People involved in right-wing groups, including militia
>groups, have been arrested on weapons' charges and bombing conspiracies.  Infiltration
>by police has been responsible for most of the arrests involving right-wing groups and they
>will increase security and background investigation of prospective members.
>    Police intelligence sources have revealed that just as law enforcement authorities are
>gathering information on individuals and groups involved in criminal activities, these same
>people are collecting information on them and their families.  Lists of police, judges and
>other officials are being compiled and disseminated to group members.
>    These groups are also targeting po lice, National Guard, and military people for
>recruitment.  This gives them access to contemporary weapons and intelligence gathering
>devices and could allow them to gain insider information on criminal investigations involving
> their members, or prior information about arrests or raids.
>    Finally, determining the correct approach to arresting armed individuals or groups with
>the least casualties to both the officers and offenders can be very difficult.  Federal agents
>were criticized at Waco for being too precipitous and in Montana for being too
>    Local, state and federal law enforcement officers would be wise to pool resources and
>    Meanwhile, specific training for officers continues in some quarters.  The National FOP,
>for example, holds seminars in conjunction with ATF on militias and similar right-wing
>groups at its national conference.
>    And among legal tools to help fight the problem is the U.S. Justice Department's recent
>work on guidelines for national legislation regarding the common-law movement, according
>to Klanwatch's Potok.
>   But when it comes down to it, officers on the street must be aware they are the first line
>of defense. 
>   "It is important to note that no police officer can feel that because of the work he does
>or the physical location that he won't come into contact with such people," FOP's Pasco
>told POLICE 
>   "Remember that it was an Oklahoma State trooper on a routine traffic stop who stopped
>and arrested Timothy McVeigh."
>15 Years of Violence
>   Here are some of the more high-proffle incidents and developments in the United States
> involving right-wing extremism since 1982:
>1983- Gordon Kahl of the Posse Comitatus shoots it out with federal officers.
>1983 - Silent Brotherhood/The Order, crime spree fashioned after "The Turner Diaries."
>August 1992 - Randy Weaver siege at Ruby Ridge; his wife, son, and a federal marshal 
>   killed.
>April 19, 1993 - Branch Davidian assault at Waco, Texas.
>April 19, 1995 - Oklahoma City bombing. 
>May 1995 - Larry Harris, alleged National Alliance member arrested with Bubonic Plague 
>                  virus.
>June 1995 - Frazeyburg, Ohio, Michael Hill, Militia Chaplain killed.
>October 1995 - Amtrak's Sunset Limited derailed in Arizona desert by Sons of Gestapo.
>March 1996 - Montana Freemen holed up on Jordan, Montana, ranch.
>July 1996 - Arizona Viper Militia members arrested in weapons and bombing conspiracy.
>October 1996 -West Virginia's Mountaineer Militia members arrested in conspiracy to sell 
>                     blueprints of the new FBI fingerprint facility to uncover agents posing as     
>                    foreign  terrorists.
>                                                                            -Kathy Marks
>                References:
> "A Force Upon the Plain: The American Militia Movement and the Politics of Hate."
> Kenneth S. Stem, NY: Simon and Schuster, 1996.
> Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith, New York, N.Y
> Coalition for Human Dignity, P. 0. Box 40344, Portland, Ore. 97240
> "Every Knee Shall Bow: The Truth and Tragedy of Ruby Ridge and the Randy
> Weaver Family." Jess Walter, New York: HarperCollins, 1996.
> "False Patriots: The Threat of antigovemment Extremists." Montgomery: Southem Poverty
> Law Center, 1996.
>"The Federal Raid on Ruby Ridge, Idaho." Hearings before the Subcommittee on
>Terrorism, Technology and Government Information of the Committee on the Judiciary,
>United States Senate, Sept. 6-Oct. 19, 1995, #J-104-41.
>"Gathering Storm: America's Militia Threat." Morris Dees, New York: Harper Collins, 1996.
>Klanwatch and Militia Task Force, Projects of the Southern Poverty Law Center, 400
>Washington Avenue, Montgomery, Ala. 36104.
>"The Tumer Diaries." William Pierce, Hillsboro, WV.  National Vanguard Books.
>"U.S. Militiaman's Handbook." Dan Shoemaker, R 0. Box 556, Moritnouth, Ill. 61462-
> 0556,1994.  
> Kathy Marks, a resident of Illinois, authored the recent book "Faces of Right-Wing
>Extremism," available from Branden Publishing Company. She teaches at the Southern
>Illinois Criminal Justice Training Program, specializing in research of right-wing extremism
>issues.  She has professional experience in law enforcement, probation and child abuse
>investigation and holds a master's degree in the Administration of Justice.  This is her first
>piece for POLICE.

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