The first clause of this [14th] Amendment determines who are
     citizens of  the United States, and how their citizenship is
     created.   Before its  enactment there was much diversity of
     opinion among  jurists and  statesmen whether  there was any
     such citizenship  independent of  that of the State, and, if
     any existed,  as to the manner in which it originated.  With
     a great  number the opinion prevailed that there was no such
     citizenship independent  of the  citizenship of  the  State.
     Such  was   the  opinion   of  Mr.  Calhoun  and  the  class
     represented by  him.  In his celebrated speech in the Senate
     upon the  Force Bill,  in 1833,  referring to  the  reliance
     expressed by a Senator upon the fact that we are citizens of
     the United  States, he  said:  "If, by citizen of the United
     States he  means a  citizen at  large, one whose citizenship
     extends to  the entire  geographical limits  of the  country
     without  having   a  local  citizenship  in  some  State  or
     territory, a sort of citizen of the world, all I have to say
     is that such a citizen would be a perfect nondescript;  that
     not a  single individual of this description can be found in
     the entire  mass of our population.  Notwithstanding all the
     pomp and display of eloquence on the occasion, every citizen
     is a  citizen of some State or Territory, and as such, under
     an express provision of the Constitution, is entitled to all
     the privileges  and immunities  of citizens  in the  several
     States;   and it  is in  this and no other sense that we are
     citizens of the United States."

                   [Slaughter House Cases, 83 U.S. 36 (page 414)]
                               [16 Wall. 36, 21 L.Ed. 394 (1872)]
                                  [Field dissent, emphasis added]

Paul Mitchell comments:

The House  Congressional Record  for June  13, 1967, contains all
the documentation  you need  to prove  that  the  so-called  14th
Amendment was  never ratified  into law (see page 15641 et seq.).
For example,  it itemizes  all States  which  voted  against  the
proposed amendment, and the precise dates when their Legislatures
did so.   "I cannot believe that any court, in full possession of
its  faculties,  could  honestly  hold  that  the  amendment  was
properly approved and adopted." State v. Phillips, 540 P.2d. 936,
941 (1975).  The Utah Supreme Court has detailed the shocking and
sordid history  of the 14th Amendment's "adoption" in the case of
Dyett v. Turner, 439 P.2d 266, 272 (1968).

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