TO:       Thomas E. McCarthy, Foreman

          San Diego County Grand Jury

          Hall of Justice

          330 W. Broadway, Suite 477

          San Diego 92101-3830



FROM:     Paul Andrew Mitchell

          Private Attorney General and Plaintiff

          Superior Court of California #GIC807057


DATE:     May 3, 2004 A.D.


SUBJECT:  Grand Jury File # 2003/04-070


Dear Mr. McCarthy:


Thank you very much for your kind letter dated April 26, 2004.  I am very pleased to have received such a prompt and professional reply from your office, and I anxiously look forward to working closely with you to resolve this matter justly, fairly, and in obedience to all pertinent State and federal laws.


On the hand-written note I attached to the document I mailed to you last Friday, I promised to follow up with further important details, and with further clarification of some of the documentary evidence which you already have in your custody.


Permit me to comment now on each of the enclosed documents:



Section 6067, California Business and Professions Code


This law has figured quite prominently in my federal case, and in my State Civil RICO case.  Please note that it expressly invokes two (2) rather significant bodies of American Law:  the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of the State of California.  It also binds all California attorneys to discharge their duties to the best of their knowledge and ability.  Finally, it requires that all such attorneys shall indorse a certificate of their oaths upon their licenses to practice law.


This section works in direct conjunction with section 6068, which states clearly that all attorneys shall have the following specific legal duties (among others):


(1)  to support the Constitution and laws of the United States and of this State;

(2)  to employ those means only as are consistent with the truth;  and,

(3)  never to seek to mislead a judge or any judicial officer by an artifice or false statement of fact or law.


As you may already know, if you have now had an opportunity to read any of the documents which I attached to my Grand Jury Complaint Form, not one attorney for any of the named Defendants in my federal case, or in my State case, has yet produced any certificate of oath that is required to be indorsed upon their licenses to practice law.


When common folks have asked me to explain this problem in simple English, here is how I have replied:  Imagine that you are pulled over by the California Highway Patrol, for exceeding the speed limit by 10 miles per hour.  What is the first thing the officer is likely to ask you?  Answer: “May I see your license, please?”  Now, instead of producing a valid driver’s license, you respond to that police officer by saying, “Oh, officer, I don’t need a physical document.  I have permission from the DMV to operate this vehicle!”  What happens then?


The issue here is a rather simple one:  does section 6067 require a license to practice law to be a physical document and, if so, what must that physical document exhibit in order for it to conform to the stated requirements of this section?


I began my search for answers to this straightforward question first by investigating the meaning of “indorse” (a variation of the word “endorse”).  Here is what I found:


Endorse  v.  1.  to sign one’s name on the back of (as a check).


The Merriam-Webster Dictionary (paperback edition)



Indorse.  To write a name on the back of a paper or document.  Bills of exchange and promissory notes are indorsed by a party’s writing his name on the back.  Hartwell v. Hemmenway, 7 Pick. (Mass.) 117.


     “Indorse” is a technical term, having sufficient legal certainty without words of more particular description.  Brooks v. Edson, 7 Vt. 351.


     See In Dorso.


Black’s Law Dictionary, Fourth Edition (1951)



In Dorso.  On the back.  2 Bl.Comm. 468;  2 Steph.Comm. 164.  In dorso recordi, on the back of the record.  5 Coke, 45.  Hence the English indorse, indorsement, etc.


Black’s Law Dictionary, Fourth Edition (1951)


Black’s Fourth Edition is valuable because it was published at a time that is closest to the date on which section 6067 was first enacted into law by the California Legislature.


Similar results are obtained for the term “certificate”:


Certificate.  A document in use in the English customhouse. ...  A written assurance, or official representation, that some act has or has not been done, or some event occurred, or some legal formality been complied with.


     A written assurance made or issuing from some court, and designed as a notice of things done therein, or as a warrant or authority, to some other court, judge, or officer.  People v. Foster, 27 Misc.Rep. 576, 58 N.Y.S. 574;  U.S. v. Ambrose, 108 U.S. 336, 2 S.Ct. 682, 27 L.Ed. 746.  A statement of some fact in a writing signed by the party certifying.  Nowell v. Mayor and Council of Monroe, 177 Ga. 648, 171 S.E. 136, 141.  A declaration in writing.  Ballen & Friedman v. Bank of Krenlin, 37 Okl. 112, 130 P. 539, 540, 44 L.R.A.,N.S., 621.  A “certificate” by a public officer is a statement written and signed, but not necessarily or customarily sworn to, which is by law made evidence of the truth of the facts stated for all or for certain purposes.  State v. Abernethy, 190 N.C. 768, 130 S.E. 619, 620.


     A writing by which testimony is given that a fact has or has not taken place.  Laclede Land & Improvement Co. v. Morten, 183 Mo.App. 637, 167 S.W. 658.


Black’s Law Dictionary, Fourth Edition (1951)


Thus, I am convinced, and I am prepared to convince a jury also, that section 6067 is a law in California which all California attorneys are required by section 6068 to obey, in spirit and in letter.  In my federal case, I even went to the trouble of obtaining lawful SUBPOENAs IN A CIVIL CASE from the Federal District Clerk in Sacramento, compelling a number of defense attorneys to exhibit their licenses to practice law with certificates of oath indorsed thereon.  Not one defense attorney has yet complied with section 6067, or the SUBPOENAs.


More recently, another SUBPOENA IN A CIVIL CASE was served on The State Bar of California, for certified copies of all licenses to practice law with oaths of office indorsed thereon by all members of the State Bar of California during the ten (10) calendar years beginning on January 1, 1994 A.D. and ending on December 31, 2003 A.D., as required by section 6067 of the California Business and Professions Code and as authorized by the federal statute at 18 U.S.C. 1964(a).  That SUBPOENA to The State Bar of California is now overdue.


Thus, I now argue that, by either failing and/or refusing to exhibit licenses that conform to section 6067, such unlicensed attorneys are providing proof that they are not supporting the Constitution and laws of the United States and of this State;  they are not employing those means only as are consistent with the truth;  and they are seeking to mislead judges and other judicial officers by an artifice, or false statements of fact or law.  See U.S. v. Tweel (silence is fraud here).


Moreover, having been shown the pertinent law numerous times, they continue to refuse to remedy the error of their ways by indorsing a certificate of oath (or reasonable substitute) that conforms to 6067.



Federal Employees without the Required Credentials


If we examine the missing credentials of key federal employees, in chronological order, we begin with Mr. Dale A. Drozd.  I won’t belabor the evidence already in your custody.  I do wish to stress, however, that Mr. Drozd also turned up without any of the credentials that are required of U.S. Magistrates by pertinent State and federal laws.


Specifically, for him to occupy the office of full-time United States Magistrate, he must have executed a proper oath of office;  he must have been a member of the State Bar for at least 5 full years;  and he must have been duly appointed by a federal officer qualified to make such an appointment.  Moreover, for any U.S. Magistrate to have enjoyed the authority to exercise civil jurisdiction in my federal case, s/he would have needed the consent of all parties, in writing, before issuing any rulings.


On the contrary, Mr. Drozd failed to produce any oath of office.  He failed to produce any license to practice law proving that he was a member of The State Bar of California (or other State) for at least five (5) full years.  And, he did not enjoy the consent of all parties named in my federal case.  He certainly did not have my consent!


If you will now carefully review my enclosed MEMO to Mr. Alex Kozinski on the subject of “federal magistrates ultra vires and coram non judice”, at the very end you will also note that I have carefully documented and itemized each and every written objection which I filed against Mr. Drozd.  On Page 12 of 24 in that MEMO, there is what I regard to be a very controlling decision by the Ninth Circuit in the case of Hajek v. Burlington Northern R.R. Co., a recent decision.  Allow me to paraphrase the key holding in Hajek as follows:


Local court rules that are inconsistent with the Federal Magistrates Act and with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure governing the appointment and authority of magistrates, are invalid and not effective to confer authority upon a magistrate, in the absence of express consent by all parties.


Specifically, in my federal case, Mr. Drozd claimed to have civil jurisdiction pursuant to a Local Rule of the U.S. District Court in Sacramento -- which coercively refers to magistrates all cases in which litigants are proceeding In Propria Persona -- even if those litigants never consented to civil jurisdiction by any magistrates.


Clearly, such a Local Rule violates the Federal Magistrates Act;  and, it also violates the U.S. Constitution which guarantees due process of law, courts of competent jurisdiction, and qualified judicial officers.  To put it bluntly, Mr. Drozd believes that all litigants who appear In Propria Persona deserve second-class, discriminatory treatment, merely because they are not being represented by active members of The State Bar of California.  And, to add insult to injury, he also believes that those same Bar members are somehow privileged to ignore Local Rules in Sacramento which require them to execute oaths before their admission to practice in that federal court.


This sordid story just gets worse from here on.  After Mr. Drozd wrote and filed what he called his “findings and recommendations,” then Mr. William B. Shubb stepped in to “adopt” those findings and recommendations “in full.”  Once again, Mr. Shubb also turned up without any of the credentials required of a federal judge by the U.S. Constitution, and by pertinent federal laws in Title 28 of the United States Code.  Even after I pointed out to Mr. Shubb that his Local Rule was unconstitutional -- for coercively referring all Pro Per cases to a magistrate -- he refused to remedy any of the numerous errors which he and Mr. Drozd had already made in my federal case.


Then, my case went up to the Ninth Circuit on appeal.  Here, believe it or not, things deteriorated even further.  First of all, I had previously charged Mr. Procter Hug with federal offenses in connection with a federal grand jury case which U.S. District Judge John M. Roll had authorized me to litigate in Tucson, Arizona.  Therefore, when Mr. Hug showed up on the 3-judge Circuit panel in my case, his presence on that panel was a clear conflict of interest.  Mr. Hug was, in fact, retaliating against me for my prior criminal complaint against him, for obstructing justice and tampering with that federal grand jury in Tucson.  The Ninth Circuit’s clerks issued the “rulings,” not judges!


During that litigation at the Ninth Circuit, I also commenced to demand the Presidential Commissions and Oaths of Office for each of the federal “robes” on that 3-judge panel.  The results were not encouraging: The U.S. Department of Justice in Washington, D.C., confirmed in writing that Mr. Stephen S. Trott has no Presidential Commission in their custody.  And, the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts, also in Washington, D.C., has refused to produce the requisite Oaths of Office for any of those 3 federal “robes”.


When I later requested en banc review of the bogus ORDERs issued by that 3-judge panel (actually by the Circuit clerks), I took it upon myself to utilize the Freedom of Information Act (“FOIA”) to request the Presidential Commissions of all 45 members of the Ninth Circuit.  In answer to that FOIA request, a second federal “robe” turned up without the requisite Presidential Commission.  And, once again, not one of those 45 turned up with any of the required Oaths of Office.


Finally, to shorten a very long story, after appealing my case to the U.S. Supreme Court, I invoked the FOIA again to request the Presidential Commissions of all 9 Justices currently seated on the highest Court in the land.  This time, 3 of those 9 turned up without Presidential Commissions: Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Clarence Thomas, and Stephen G. Breyer.  And, believe it or not, a document I had served on all 9 Justices of the U.S. Supreme Court in December of 1993, ended up implicating 8 of the current 9 Justices as material witnesses to the widespread infringement of my exclusive copyrights in the electronic copy of my book.  The proof that they were rendered material witnesses can be found in Justice Kennedy’s concurring opinion in U.S. v. Lopez:  there, Mr. Kennedy used the title of my book –- “federal zone” –- as a household word, giving that term a permanent place in the history of American constitutional jurisprudence.  That could only be because he had read the hard copy edition which I attached to my 1993 document.



The Case for Civil RICO Remedies


In November of 2002 A.D., I received a professional email message from a journalist named Jon Mummolo, who worked at that time with Washington Square News.  In that message, Mr. Mummolo asked two excellent questions about my federal lawsuit.  I took that opportunity to prepare a lengthy written answer, which is also enclosed for your review and application to the legal merits of my Civil RICO case.  Notably, criminal copyright infringement is now one of the federal offenses which also constitute RICO “predicate acts” warranting triple damages, liberal construction of the RICO statutes, and an evidence “window” which reaches back ten (10) calendar years.  Please find the time to study my answer to Mr. Mummolo, because I expect that it will enlighten you immensely about important legal merits of my RICO case.


In this context, permit me to emphasize how important it was for me to reserve my RICO allegations for the Superior Court of California.  From the very first day of my federal lawsuit, I correctly anticipated that federal employees would obstruct my progress and prevent me from trying my case before a jury of my peers, with criminal consequences.


As you can see from the discussion above, I have already been victimized by federal impostors who are committing felony federal offenses by violating the federal criminal statute at 18 U.S.C. 912 (impersonating officers of the United States).  Other felony offenses have been directed at me, most probably to discourage my activism as a published author, and now a Private Attorney General and Counselor.


The statute at 18 U.S.C. 4 obliges me to report those felonies, and I have done so by means of VERIFIED CRIMINAL COMPLAINTs filed with the Clerk of the Superior Court, and also with qualified federal officers.


The Initial COMPLAINT in my Superior Court case has carefully explained that I have been victimized not only by numerous, repeated violations of the RICO “predicate acts” that are itemized at 18 U.S.C. 1961.  It also alleged expressly that systematic federal obstruction was a “continuing threat” which needed to be enjoined up front by the Superior Court of California, if I was ever going to see any end to the manifold retaliations from which I now seek relief.  To this end, as you hopefully know already, I filed a timely and proper MOTION FOR PRELIMINARY INJUNCTION BARRING REMOVAL into any federal courts.  If you have read my Grand Jury Complaint, you should also know that a hearing on that motion was scheduled, notices of that hearing were served, and I appeared at Department 71 on the appointed day and time, only to learn on that day that the hearing had been cancelled.


Now, I continue to hear Superior Court clerks reiterate the same old lies, e.g. that my case was “removed” and that Dale A. Drozd and the U.S. District Court in Sacramento now have “jurisdiction” [sic] of my Civil RICO case.  Since when do named defendants ever have any right to preside upon the very same case in which they are either named defendants, or named in verified criminal complaints which I am required by 18 U.S.C. 4 to report and file in that same case?  By the way, Irma E. Gonzalez turned up without any Oath of Office either!



The Reason for Private Attorneys General


Permit me to close this long letter with a specific reference to the holding of the U.S. Supreme Court in the case of Agency Holding Corp. v. Malley-Duff & Associates (see enclosed).  Here, the Supreme Court has upheld the intent of Congress, namely, to utilize the RICO laws to bring to bear the pressure of private attorneys general on a serious national problem, for which public prosecutorial resources are deemed inadequate.  That serious national problem is organized crime rackets, and there is no indication that Congress ever intended that government impostors or infiltrators should be exempted from the legislative intent of RICO.  On the contrary, Congress has expressly authorized triple damages to be awarded in all Civil RICO cases like mine.


Moreover, there is a telling admission in this case -- that public prosecutorial resources are deemed inadequate.  From my experience, part of this inadequacy stems from a widespread, albeit incorrect assumption on the part of local police and Districts Attorney -- that all federal matters are to be handled automatically by the federal courts and by federal law enforcement personnel, without exception.


This assumption is manifestly incorrect, primarily because the U.S. Supreme Court and the Ninth Circuit have now both agreed that Civil RICO cases can also be litigated in State Courts, because State Courts enjoy concurrent original jurisdiction of Civil RICO claims.


Just think about this for a moment: if federal racketeers want to immunize themselves from judicial review, one fast way to do that is to keep RICO cases in the federal tribunals, where federal impostors can be assigned to obstruct the progress of those cases.  On this point, I venture to say that federal judges are not being assigned randomly in any tax and monetary cases now being filed in the federal courts.  From my direct, eyewitness experience, federal “robes” are not being assigned randomly either.  On the contrary, all available evidence now indicates that specialized impostors have infiltrated the federal judiciary, and are waiting in the wings to be assigned to any cases which are filed to adjudicate valid complaints about the IRS or any of its many accessories within the federal (feudal?) system.


If Civil RICO cases against federal employees can not proceed in the Superior Court of California, but must suffer automatic, coercive removal into hostile federal legislative tribunals, where those cases die on the vine, then justice has been destroyed in America;  and, it may never be able to resurrect itself, as long as federal impostors are standing by to obstruct any meaningful progress with such cases, and as long as those same impostors are being rewarded handsomely for doing so.  I add to this morass of evidence my criminal complaint against Dean D. Pregerson, doing business as a U.S. District Judge in downtown Los Angeles.  He also turned up without any of the credentials required of a federal judge.  Confirmation of that was received from the U.S. Department of Justice in Washington, D.C., after Mr. Pregerson deprived my client of any counsel during a preliminary hearing in that client’s criminal case, in blatant violation of 18 U.S.C. 241 and 242 (not to mention other crimes).



Mr. McCarthy, I do hope this lengthy MEMO gives you valuable additional insights into the merits of my present Complaint, now pending before the grand jury of which you are the Foreman.


Please reserve an opportunity for me to expand upon any of these matters in writing, after receiving specific written requests for clarification from your good offices.


Thank you, once again, for your professional consideration.



Sincerely yours,


/s/ Paul Andrew Mitchell


Paul Andrew Mitchell

Private Attorney General and Plaintiff

Superior Court of California docket #GIC807057