In the  Constitution and  laws of the United States the word
"citizen" is  generally, if not always, used in a political sense
to designate  one who  has the rights and privileges of a citizen
of a State or of the United States.  It is also used in section 1
of Article  XIV of  the  amendments  to  the  Constitution  which
provides that  " .  . . ."  But is also sometimes used in popular
language to  indicate the  same thing as resident, inhabitant, or
person.   That it  is not  so used in section 5508 in the Revised
Statutes (Crimes  Against the Elective Franchise and Civil Rights
of Citizens)  is quite  clear . . . ..  Here the doubtful word is
"citizen" and  it is  used in  connection  with  the  rights  and
privileges pertaining  to man  as a  citizen, and not as a person
only or an inhabitant.  . . .  For these reasons we are satisfied
that the word citizen, as used in this statute, must be given the
same  meaning   it  has   in  the  Fourteenth  Amendment  of  the
Constitution,  and  that  to  constitute  the  offense  which  is
provided for,  the wrong  must be done to one who is a citizen in
that sense.
                                [Baldwin v. Franks, 120 U.S. 678]
                               [30 L.C.P.Co. 766, 770-771 (1887)]

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Baldwin v. Franks